About DUCK
Does DUCK perform tests on animals?
NO. To know the ideal food for our dog, we do not need to do tests, we only have to look at nature. Dogs that live like wolves, eat the same as wolves. But domestic dogs do not live like wolves and that's why there are small differences in the proportion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, but not in the ingredients themselves.
The protein source must be meat, not meat meal, egg powder, soy or any other vegetable protein.
The fat must be natural fat, unheated, with the same biological proportion between nutritional fat und unsaturated fat acids — not solidified, heated animal fat mixed with vegetable fat, to obtain an absolute minimum of unsaturated fat acids.
The calcium source must be bone, ground or not, but not bone meal. With bone meal, it becomes unbelievably complicated because the need is different for every individual and not merely a question of age, breed or size.
With ground bones every individual dog, no matter what size or age, uses what it needs and converts the remaining amount into energy. A dog cannot do this with calcium or bone meal.
Also as regards carbohydrates we must look at nature and not only to nature documentaries. These show wolves practically always devouring large preys because of the spectacular images. Nobody is fascinated by a wolf catching mice, but that is what happens in reality.
White wolves living in North-Canada or Alaska do so in the most energy-consuming circumstances. 80 to 90% of their feed consists of rodents such as the lemming. This is an animal that eats 2.5 times its own weight in seeds and corn every day, which means that its stomach content is, in proportion, enormously large. A wolf here eats dozens of such little animals per day to satisfy its need for energy, but its excellent condition shows that when the need for energy increases, this does not increase the need for protein!
We've always based the composition of our natural foods on these and other well-established facts and will always do so.
How are the packages?
Duck products are available in 400 g, 1-kilo packs or in 8-kilo breeders’ pack, highly appreciated by owners of big dogs or breeders who can thus get a practical packaging and an attractive price.
frozen food
Can DUCK FOOD be refrozen?
Keep DUCK FOOD frozen until ready to use - then, simply thaw and store in the refrigerator. DUCK FOOD can be refrozen into smaller portions for later use or training treats. Always refreeze the same day the product is defrosted to maintain optimal freshness, and be sure to wash hands with hot, soapy water after handling.
Do dogs eat differently than cats?
Large wild cats such as lions, tigers, leopards and pumas eat the same prey as wild dogs that live there such as wolves, African wild dogs, , jackals, coyotes, etc. But also for small wild cats (such as for instance the European wild cat) there are no other mice, birds or rabbits than for a fox.
The stomach outlet of a dog can be closed off well for solid substances. What does this mean?
Not only does this make digestion perfect since a dog is a carnivore, it also creates a safety buffer because meat is a solid substance. The stomach outlet is closed, so gastric juices are lowered to 2pH, digestion is perfect and in the acid environment all damaging substances such as bacteria, worm eggs, etc. are killed. This is because they cannot survive at a pH level of 2 — luckily for wolves, dingoes, jackals and foxes because they cannot just pass by a vet for worming.
With natural food, the process is the same for a domesticated dog. However for various reasons, they must be vaccinated and wormed at regular intervals, even when being given natural food.
For every gram of dry food a dog eats, he must drink +/- 2.5 grams of water. Tap water usually contains a lot of calcium. Calcium neutralises acids, the result: a less functioning digestive system. Because the acidity level cannot be lowered to 2pH, the chance that worms, worm eggs or damaging bacteria can survive becomes higher.
Why can't water replace meat moisture?
A dog's head shows that it is a carnivore, not only by its teeth and jaws (a dog can only pinch, bite and tear), but by the fact that he is not really able to drink.
Herbivores must also live from plants beyond the summer months, and these are then hydrated by nature. Only in the summer do plants keep up a lot of moisture.
For a horse, cow, deer or rabbit, for instance, this is not a problem, as they can by almost completely closing their lips, turn their mouth into a kind of funnel enabling them to suck up water. This works well, and big herbivores are quickly able to drink litres of water within a very short period of time.
Dogs and cats are hunters by nature and must be able to open their mouth very wide to catch a prey; that is why the corners of their mouth lie very deep and they cannot close their lips to drink.
In nature they don't need to. Their food (prey) consists in winter and summer of 70% moisture and in the couple of hundred years of domestication, evolution hasn't changed this at all.
So dogs that eat dry food should not only drink because of thirst, but also to replenish the moisture missing in dry food. They must turn their tongue into a kind of little spoon to ladle and throw in all that extra moisture. The result is that everything that is close to the water bowl is splashed with water.
Water is not the same as meat moisture! Meat moisture is liquid consisting partly of water. To digest its food a dog must bring its stomach acid from +/- 5 pH down to 2 pH.
With natural food this is not a problem because the basis for this is fresh meat and as we saw earlier meat consists for 70% of moisture. This moisture is natural and neutral, it does not contain calcium and is absorbed in a solid substance, i.e. the meat!
Why does DUCK complete contain less protein than dry food?
For the dog there isn't less protein in DUCK FOOD than in dry food but more because the quality of that protein is much higher. The amount only appears smaller if, as prescribed by law, it is expressed in %. A dog does not eat percentages, it eats amounts or grams!
When comparing the amount of protein in food, one should first deduct the moisture and then compare it with the dry substance. For protein, the biological value is much more important than the weight. You could compare this to a fruit salad. When opening such a can, you'll see pieces of apple, pear, grapes, pineapple, etc. and with a little bit of imagination this is perfectly comparable to protein. Just as separate pieces of fruit together form a fruit salad, all separate amino-acids together from protein.
Let's assume you have a dog that needs 140 grams of protein. If protein were a fruit salad, that dog would need exactly one can. But the problem is the balance of fruits. In every can of fruit salad, there are three red cherries and the dog needs nine of them. And there is the big difference between heated food such as canned and dry food and natural food, which must not be heated and thus is not damaged because it contains fresh meat and organs, and that is why dogs that do not eat natural food are too fat, and at the same time undernourished. This may seem a contradiction, but it isn't because they're trying to set off their deficiency of certain amino-acids by eating more, which makes them too fat, but there will still be a deficiency, resulting after a while in one or several disorders as described above in the table of problems induced by bad food.
Next to high temperatures, which are very damaging for proteins (and not only for proteins, also fats, vitamins and enzymes are damaged, destroyed or saturated), the selection of the food's basic materials is also very significant for the protein quality.
Protein from soy can only be used for 45% of a dog's total requirement. If we assume that a food contains 25% of protein and the source of protein is soy, then only 45% of this 25% is of use to a dog.
Why doesn't DUCK always look the same?
The quality and nutritional value are constant and optimal. The appearance, however, may change depending on various factors.
- The sharpness of the knives used when cutting and mixing the food has no influence on the total moisture level. However, the sharpness does influence the amount of moisture that may be released.
- If the cow to be slaughtered is tired the meat may be darker.
- Stress affects the colour of the animal's meat (i.e. transport to slaughterhouse).
- The seasonal temperature at the moment of slaughtering influences the colour of the meat.
- The age of the slaughtered animal.
- The breed.
- The feed given to the cow.
- The period of freezing after the slaughtering (there is already a distinct difference in colour after one hour).
- The accommodation before the slaughtering (pasture or stable).
In any case, the dog does not mind about the colour; it does mind about taste and smell.
Ailments, illnesses
or problem behaviour
My dog eats grass. Why?
In almost all cases, it can be said that dogs in fact don't eat grass, but drink the moisture that it contains (up to 80% moisture). The moisture in grass is very tasty and well-filtered, and unlike tap water, it does not contain chlorine, calcium, etc.
You may already have experienced that your dog doesn't drink from the fresh bowl of tap water put before him but, immediately afterwards, will drink from the rainwater outside.
As already mentioned , drinking is difficult for a dog and extracting moisture from solid substances very normal. As a carnivore it cannot extract nutritional substances from grass, but can extract moisture from it.
Contrary to cats, a dog doesn't need to eat grass to vomit. That is a remainder from its ancestor, the wolf, who vomits food for pups when they start to eat solid food.
My dog eats its faeces. Does this point to a shortage in his feed?
No, probably not!
The probability that coprophagy (that's the scientific name for this problem) begins in the litter box and the direct environment in which the dog as a puppy was born, is very big.
For dogs living more or less in a pack, the mutual pack relationships also plays a part, and for eating faeces there are, next to the known causes, factors such as order of rank and dominance that play a part. It is a kind of substitute pattern for defending their part of the prey.
In Canada, I once observed that sledge dogs weren't interested in eating their faeces as long as they were all connected to their chain or doghouse, so as long as everyone had its specific place. But when for one reason or another one dog would break loose, the other dogs would defend their faeces or gobble it up as if it were a meal whenever the free dog would come near them.
This territorial behaviour and possessive urge are considerable factors here. It is almost always about letting off steam, or about substitute behaviour, and the better they feel, the more steam must be let off.
My dog eats soil. Why?
There are many causes for eating sand and soil, one of them being a shortage of minerals. With natural food this is impossible (the mineral balance is optimal).
The two most frequent causes are:
1. Contrary to what many people think, pups do not know what's good for them. This is partly inbred, the rest they learn from their parents and the other pack members and, for a considerable part, from experience, trying out things, e.g. eating soil. This behaviour does not only occur among young dogs, but among many young animals. Young horses or foals may do this as well, sometimes even resulting in their death. Arab thoroughbreds, for instance, are very sensitive to this.
2. Among adult animals the main cause is a form of boredom or letting off steam. Dogs that are properly fed and have a reasonable condition are extra sensitive to it. This also applies to pups and it's only by anticipating their hunting urge (so, for sledge dogs pulling the cart or sledge) that the problem can be solved. For ordinary domestic dogs a brisk daily walk may already do the trick.
Which problems may be food-induced?
Which problems may be food-induced?
Scaly skin
Muscular weakness
Reactions to mucous membrane of the mouth
Bad stamina
Bold spots
Excessive panting
Loss of hair
Low self-confidence
Elephant skin
Poor learning skills
Red spots on skin
Easily frightened
Aphthous ulcers
Loss of pigmentation
Dull fur
Bad breath
Easily distracted
Bad appetite
Autoimmunity disorder
A lot of/ frequent defecation
Drinking a lot
Stomach/bowel disorders
Excessively curved lumbar region
Hip dislocation
Anal gland blocked
Sagging legs
Kidney/liver diseases
Sagging back
French position
Eating grass
Heels too close to one another
Eating faeces or dirt
Growth pains
Constantly hungry

What can be the cause?
1. Use of additives in food:
- thickening agents
- hardening agents
- preservatives
- colouring agents, aromatic substances and flavourings
2. Use of high temperatures:
- unsaturated fats become saturated
- vitamins are neutralised
- enzymes are killed
3. Unsuitable ingredients or basic products:
- bone meal: may cause excessive intake of calcium
- melted fats: too many saturated and too few unsaturated fatty acids
- fish meal: has a disturbed amino-acids pattern (your dog is not a seadog)
- genetically modified corn
- soy: can be used, but only for 45% of proteins
- beet pulp: contains saponins.
Dogs don't need these additives, but they are essential for preparing dry food.
Why do so many dogs suffer from tartar?
Dental hygiene is also very important for dogs, but luckily you needn't brush your dog's teeth. It is best capable of doing soitself, obviously not with a toothbrush, but a pizzle stick given regularly after the meal.
A dog's teeth are best suited to tear a prey apart. A dog cannot chew as we do because the upper and lower jaws are connected to one another by way of a fixed hinge point. Gobbling up their food as quickly as possible is a remaining habit going back to their natural ancestors, the wolves. They did and do so because there are always competitors in the neighbourhood. The actual eating takes but a couple of minutes at the most; the subsequent chewing on soft bones and tendons may take hours. That is why wolves and wild dogs in nature do not suffer from tartar.
Dogs that have already developed a bit of tartar will lose it automatically when switching to DUCK complete, regularly followed by a natural snack. If the tartar is already far advanced, it must be removed by a vet.
As with people, one dog will be more sensitive to tartar than another. Hereditary traits also play a part here. The main cause, however, is the kind of food the dog eats.
Why is the risk of stomach torsions lower with DUCK Natural food?
As we know, moisture must be withdrawn to produce dry food. This withdrawn moisture is absorbed again in the stomach, as a result of which the food may triple in volume. Because of the laws of gravitation, the specific weight of the food mash is not evenly distributed. So the volume in the stomach is big, but the specific weight relatively small, and above all unevenly distributed.
Other questions
Are you feeding your dog Duck as indicated in the table?
As a rule, every nutritional table is only a set of guidelines. Deviations of up to 20% are possible.
Every dog has a different metabolism and other needs that affect his or her energy consumption. The metabolism is also influenced by factors such as breed, temperament, fur, accommodation, mobility, nervousness, nature, character and age.
A dog that is scared to stay alone at home uses more energy than a dog in good health would use while running!
When the need for energy increases, the need for protein does not. When a dog that according to his weight and the nutritional table would have to eat about 1 kg, in reality needs about 1.3 kg or more to maintain its weight, you'd better stick to 1 kg and give extra rice and vegetable flakes.
1. Add 2 cups of warm water  per cup of flakes.
2. Let the mixture soak in for a while.
3. Then add a tablespoon of sunflower oil.
4. Mix everything properly together.
Depending on the dog's needs you can use one, two or three cups of rice. But when adding rice, use as a basis the amount of DUCK complete indicated by the table. Only then will the dog receive all essential ingredients in the right amounts.
What breeders should also know?
- Did you know that pups do not drink a certain amount of milk or take into account the quality of the mother's milk, but are still satisfied once they have made a certain number of sucking motions? If they get a little or a lot of milk, more often it is milk with too low a fat and protein content.
- Did you know that to increase 1 gram in weight a pup must be able to drink 2.5 grams of the best mother's milk?
- Did you know that to produce 2.5 grams of high-quality milk a bitch needs 6.25 grams of natural food?
- Did you know that fresh liver in the exact proportion is very important for the quality of the mother's milk?
- Did you know that a bitch cannot produce milk directly from the extra feed you're giving her?
- Did you know that milk is made from proteins naturally produced by the body?
- Did you know that as a result there is often sufficient milk, but that the quality is most of the times too low?
- Did you know that this is partly the reason for the fact that often, there is a lot of difference in the birth weights and evolution of pups?
- Did you know that domestication changes the behaviour and often also the appearance of wild animals so that they become domestic animals?
- Did you know that domestication can be brought about in a few generations or within a few decades?
- Did you know that the evolution, which changes the digestive system of domesticated or wild animals, requires millions of years?
- Did you know that the digestive system of our dogs and wolves is still exactly the same?
- Did you know that the milk from bitches being given natural food contains three times as much nutritional substance?
- Did you know that a natural food diet does not only yield better but, on average, also bigger litters?
- Did you know that when a bitch is always given natural food, it can have at least one more litter without being physically or mentally overburdened?
- Did you know that too much vitamin E can lead to liver problems (amongst other things)?
- Did you know that vitamin E is the third most frequently used preservative?
- Did you know that as regards to growth pains there is a connection with natural inclination, preservatives and time of birth?
- Did you know that a smooth, flat bottom in the litter box is disadvantageous?
- Did you know that installing a lamp above the litter box may be very damaging?
- Did you know that a litter box must be structured in such a way that when pups are 21 days old, they must be able to leave and re-enter it quite easily, thereby helping to prevent Coprophagy (stool eating).
- Did you know that NOT everything that's inbred is also hereditary and that not everything that is hereditary is also genetically predisposed?
- Did you know how important food is for improving a breed?
- Did you know that several faults that parents pass on to their children are not hereditary or genetic, but are caused by hidden deficiencies in their food?
- Did you know that when a breastfeeding bitch is not able to use sufficient calcium from her food for her pups, she decalcifies her own bones to give calcium to her pups?
- Did you know that she cannot pass on to her pups other nutritional substances or vitamins and minerals that she cannot get from her foodherself?
- Did you know that this is why many faults are considered genetic, whereas they are only hereditary?
- Did you know that with natural food most faults can be corrected in one generation?
- Did you know that bitches after a litter that are very meagre and look bad (in popular speech they've giving everything they got) often have the wrong nutritional build and/or are being given a feed from which they cannot use everything they needs?
- Did you know that those bitches very often were given a lot more food by the end of their gestation?
- Did you know that this considerably increases the risk of complications?
- Did you know that a bitch in gestation must receive the most food on the 42nd day after mating?
- Did you know that many bitches that are covered but do not appear to be pregnant, were impregnated but that the foetuses died without anyone noticing it?
- Did you know that the condition of the male dog and the food he is given has an influence on your pups?
- Did you know that pups up to 4 weeks can only digest lactose (milk)?
- Did you know that after the first contact with solid food it may take another 7 days before enzymes are made that are needed to digest that kind of food?
- Did you know that you may give pups at the age of 3 weeks a very small amount of DUCK Excellent? Not as extra food, but to enable them to produce enzymes.
- Did you know that this way, just as in nature, you can change from the mother's milk directly to natural food such as DUCK Excellent, without giving porridges or whatever in between?
- Did you know that this is because the mother, who gets the same feed as the pups, has already passed on, through the mother's milk, hormones, enzymes and bacteria needed to digest solid food, to the pups?
- Did you know that becoming house-trained as to solid defecation is inbred behaviour i.e. Instinct
-Did you know that becoming house-trained as to peeing is learnt behaviour i.e. experience
- Did you know that this is the reason why the subsoil on which pups lie is so important?
- Did you know that as of the age of 21 days pups begin to learn from the mother's behaviour?
- Did you know that for instance fear for sounds (being able to tolerate gun shots) cannot be genetic but only hereditary?
- Did you know that with a bit of luck you can be freed from this problem in one generation?
- Did you know that food is not only important for the fur and the dog's build, but also for its behaviour?
- Did you know that a lack of certain (drilled in) experiences between weeks 3 and 5 sometimes manifest itself only in month 4 or 5?
- Did you know that partly for this reason, when you want to test a pup's behaviour, this should be done when the pup is 7 weeks old and not a couple of days earlier or later?
- Did you know that, when comparing dry food to natural food, in order to get down the same number of nutritional Kcal an adult dog must carry along twice the amount of weight when being given dry food?
- Did you know that for a pup the difference is even much bigger?
- Did you know that this is very bad for his angular shapes, legs and back?
- Did you know that freezing does not affect the quality of fresh meat?
- Did you know that mixing a bit of DUCK with dry food brings you only some of the many advantages your dog would have when being given natural food only?
- Did you know that iron is very important for the pigment?
- Did you know that the best absorbed iron is the iron contained in meat moisture?